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CABALLEROS y DAMAS de la “ORDEN INMEMORIAL de la FUENTE DE LA VIDA"

1… RAMONA AGUILERA

2… IRENE ARCO-ESTRADA

3… CHARO ARENILLAS DE LOS RÍOS 4… JOSÉ BARGAS PEDROTE
5… CARLOS BORLADO MARTÍNEZ 6… CARMEN CARÚS GEMOETS
7… ERNESTO DÍAZ DE ARANGUIZ 8… ANA ROSA GARCÍA CABALLERO
9… PEDRO PABLO GARCÍA MAY 10… JOSÉ MARÍA GARCÍA RÍOS
11… ÁNGEL MORENO Y GARCÍA MADRID 12… MIGUEL ÁNGEL NAVARRO VALLEJO
13… EMILIANO ORTA DÍAZ 14… FRANCISCO ORTUÑO ORTUÑO
15… ANGELINA PINEDO RODRÍGUEZ-ESCOBAR 16… BORIS RIBERO SANZ
17… TATIANA RIBERO SANZ 18… BALODIA RIBERO SANZ
19… IBÁN RIBERO SANZ 20… NATALIA RIBERO SANZ
21… LUZMILA RIBERO VILÀ 22… BLANCA RIBERO VILÀ
23… OLIBIA RIBERO VILÀ 24… JESÚS FERNANDO RIVERO PRADERA
25… ARGENTINA SAN EMETERIO PÉREZ 26… SILVIA SANTOS SASTRE
27… JAVIER TORTOSA PONS 28… MARIBEL TORTOSA PONS
29… TOMÁS VAL SÁEZ 30… JAVIER ZARZUELO SIHURO
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Plural Lineages in the Human mtDNA Genome

 

Analysis of recent research indicates a plural genealogy for the human mtDNA genome: an African, and two indigenous Eurasian lineages that are NOT derived from the African. This falsifies the ‘Out of Africa’ radiation and replacement theory, and means there is NOT one, African ‘Eve’, who is ancestral to all modern humans.

Consider this sentence, from the first paragraph of the Innan-Nordborg paper, “The argument for recombination is based on the observation that the pattern of polymorphism in mtDNA is incompatible with a single genealogical tree and unique mutations.” Thus, there are three things that might account for the observed pattern of polymorphisms:

1) recombination,
2) more than one lineage, or
3) multiple mutations at many sites.

Look at the Innan paper and you will see that the possibly recombined or repetitively mutated sites are scattered throughout the genome, and do not occur only in the hypervariable region. Note that the quote from Innan & Nordborg implies that the less recombination or repetitive, same-site mutation has affected the mitochondrial genome, then the LESS likely it is that there is a single genealogy for the human mtDNA genome. In other words, unless there has been enough repetitive mutation or recombination to account for the observed pattern of polymorphism, then not all mtDNA is from the same source, as claimed by proponents of the ‘African Eve’, or African radiation and replacement theories.

On the other hand, the more recombination, or repetitive mutation that has occurred, then the more Eve’s age has been under-estimated. That is because the effect of either repeated mutations at one site or recombination is to make the mtDNA genome appear younger than it really is. If we knew Eve’s era from historical or anthropological data, we could compare that date with the one derived from the mtDNA coalescence algorithm. The difference between the calculated coalescence result and the historical date would reveal the combined effect of recombination and repetitive mutation. If that combined effect is obviously insufficient to account for the observed pattern of polymorphism, then we may infer a plural genealogy for the human mtDNA genome.

There is nothing in the historical or anthropological record to independently establish the era of a (supposed) speciation of humans in Africa. However, the situation in Eurasia is very different. There we can calibrate the coalescence date of Eurasian strains of mtDNA with an historical event, anthropological evidence, and research on the human y-chromosome. Thus we can infer the effect (hence extent) of recombination and repeated mutations, by comparing those other dates with the result of the mtDNA coalescence calculation. If the fit on these dates is fairly close we can be assured that little recombination or repetitive mutation has occurred, hence the observed pattern of polymorphism must reveal a plural genealogy for the mtDNA genome.

Refer to the Mishmar paper (second full paragraph, right-hand column, on the first page) for a brief description of the M and N mtDNA lineages. Technically, one can’t say that these are ‘Eurasian specific’ lineages, only because they have found their way into the African population. Note Mishmar’s admission concerning the afrocentrists’ assertion that M and N evolved and diverged in North Africa. This paper’s authors come about as close to admitting that is implausible as they can, while remaining politically correct and afro-orthodox. To sum up: on the afro-view, M and N lineages diverged from the African Eve’s lineage, while on my view they are the oldest surviving Eurasian lineages. Either way, it doesn’t affect the argument I am making in regard to determining the relative contribution of repeated mutation and/or recombination versus plural genealogy.

With either theory, there’s a coalescence date for the M and N lineages. Mishmar calculates the M and N lineages are both 65,000 years old. I regard it as significant that these Eurasian Eves’ ages are the same, as will be explained below. And whether M and N split off the African lineage then, or they are the most ancient, indigenous Eurasian lineages still extant: either way, they are 65kyr old, as calculated by the coalescence algorithm.

There was a lot going on in Eurasia around -65 kyr. The last common paternal ancestor of Europeans lived at -59 kyr, as calculated from y-chromosome data. So we have a date for the male counterpart of Eurasian Eve, calculated from a different genome, at a date within 10% of agreement. Then, ‘modern’ human artifacts are found in Eurasia by -50kyr. Considering that it is unlikely we have found the very first artifacts, and that people may have been genetically modern for awhile before developing human (Homo sapiens sapiens) culture, those dates are in remarkable agreement. Add to that, radiation into Australia by anatomically modern humans occurred at a date that may be as early as -60 kyrs, and no doubt that radiation took some millennia.

It begins to look like that -65kyr coalescence date is right on target, and we could claim there is no influence from recombination and repeated mutation, so all the sites reflected in Figure 2 are evidence for plural genealogies: QED! However, that would be disingenuous, because I believe there has been some recurrent mutation, though it is possible they have fully accounted for it in their model, and some recombination, which they probably have not explicitly factored in. So, I would expect that coalescence date to be a little more recent than the era of a genetically significant event, which actually caused modern humans to differentiate from a relatively advanced population of archaic sapiens.

One reason we can expect the loss of lineages existing before the modern type differentiated, is that there must have been a population ‘bottle-neck’ associated with speciation itself. Moreover there must have been a severe population loss in temperate or higher latitudes when Mt. Toba erupted around -74kyrs and caused a nuclear winter in Eurasia. That savage selection event alone would account for the loss of more-ancient Eurasian mtDNA lineages: all the more so if it was followed by the constriction attendant to speciation. Earlier, I said it is significant that the two oldest Eurasian mtDNA lineages are the same age. The fact that they both date from the same era makes it most plausible that more-ancient lineages were lost in a specific selection event and/or population bottleneck, rather than merely through ‘lineage sorting’. It is comparatively unlikely that two mtDNA lineages would simultaneously diverge from a putative African lineage, and both (but only they) migrate from Africa and survive to the present. It is far more reasonable and parsimonious to assume that no older Eurasian maternal lineages survived two severe bottlenecks, and subsequent lineage sorting, in the indigenous Eurasian population.

So, even if we assume that the actual population constriction occurred prior to the coalescence date, and associate it with the obvious selection event of Toba’s eruption, a -65kyr coalescence date still calibrates quite closely. Note that -65 kyrs is only about 12% less than the putative genetically significant date of -74 kyrs. So, both recombination and repeated mutations can only have had a small effect on the calculation of a coalescence date, hence there are not many sites in the mtDNA genome that have experienced recombination or repeated mutation.

But where it is evident that many of the sites show evidence of either recombination or repeated mutation, or else they are evidence of more than one genealogy for the mtDNA genome! Therefore, most of the sites graphed in Figure 2 must be considered as evidence for more than one mtDNA genealogy. Therefore, M and N lineages are not derived from the African genome, but represent the most ancient, surviving lineages of the Eurasian type. Hence M and N are Eurasian specific lineages that only entered Africa through radiation, rather than coming from Africa.

In conclusion, recombination and repetitive mutations are not enough (by a wide margin) to explain the observed pattern of polymorphisms in the mtDNA genome. Therefore, there is more than one genealogy: there are two Eurasian maternal lineages, associated with the speciation of modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) in Eurasia, and another, African lineage. This refutes the ‘Afro-radiation and replacement’ theory, and the politically correct shibboleth that ‘we are all Africans’. As explained in Age and Origin of the Human Species (Fonda, Mankind Quarterly, Dec 2000; & posted at rafonda.com) the evidence already pointed to a recent, Eurasian origin for modern humans. Only the assertion of a single genealogy for mtDNA could be construed to supported the afro-replacement theory, and that assumption is now revealed to be false.

Mishmar et al, are probably correct to attribute variation, in lineages derived from M and N, to natural selection. One supposes that Mishmar et al., theorize that mtDNA selection took place in the last 50kyrs (Wallace’s date for an African radiation, quoted in NY Times, “Ice Age Ancestry”) in order to accommodate their theory to the constraints of assuming an African origin for modern humans. However, it is more plausible that such selection took place in very ancient times (when pre-human species were adapting to a cold climate) and was only retained at high latitudes, among people living at low culture levels, as the adaptations come at a fitness cost, and thus were lost when and where physical adaptations were superceded by elaborated clothing and shelter, in the temperate zone and the recent era.

 

In addition to the plain text above, Recombination or Mutational Hotspots in Human mtDNA
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/19/7/1122

Data from Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humans is also analyzed in this paper.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/100/1/171.pdf

 

ÉTICA Y ESTÉTICA

Página abierta al Conocimiento, en la Vanguardia intelectual de Occidente ...: ÉTICA & ESTÉTICA
Baluarte de la LIBRE Expresión.
Autor: Jorge Mª Ribero Meneses Lázaro.

Obra Registrada.
Definición de Moral y de Ética: Parcela del comportamiento humano que preconiza el predominio del BIEN sobre el MAL, entiendo aquél como la DEFENSA a ultranza de la BONDAD y de la VERDAD, y otorgando siempre la supremacía al RESPETO de los intereses de los más débiles.

CÁTEDRA ABIERTA

CÁTEDRA ABIERTA…, Baluarte de la LIBRE EXPRESIÓN… y Avanzadilla en pos del CONOCIMIENTO, 

en la vanguardia intelectual de Occidente...: ÉTICA & RAZÓN & ESTÉTICA (E&R&E).

Movimiento ÉTICO y SOCIOCULTURAL, precursor desde el año 1978 de DEMOCRACIA REAL, YAy que suscribe y comparte los Principios y la Indignación del Movimiento del 15-M.
 
DECLARACIÓN DE PRINCIPIOS:  El hecho de que la VIDA sea o no sea HERMOSA, depende SÓLO de la ACTITUD con que cada persona la afronta. El “gran secreto” del INTROITISMO, radica en que tiene como base una actitud siempre POSITIVA, ALEGRE, OPTIMISTA y, sobre todo, muy HUMANA y SENSIBLE, respecto a todos los hechos, avatares y circunstancias de las personas y de la Vida.
 
Amén de un MOVIMIENTO INTELECTUAL Y CULTURAL sin precedentes en la HISTORIA, el INTROITISMO es una Explosión de SENSIBILIDAD que pretende compensar y contrarrestar la profunda Fealdad, Injusticia e Ingratitud que presiden el devenir de la Vida y del Mundo y que son los principales responsables de la infelicidad y el sufrimiento del común de los Seres que poblamos este bello pero nefastamente gestionado Planeta… Y es que, a la postre, el hecho de que la VIDA sea o no sea HERMOSA, depende SÓLO de la ACTITUD con que cada persona la afronta. Parece mentira, pero es así. Y ése es el “gran secreto” del INTROITISMO, construido desde una actitud siempre POSITIVA, ALEGRE, OPTIMISTA y, sobre todo, muy HUMANA y SENSIBLE, respecto a todos los hechos, avatares y circunstancias de las personas y de la Vida.
 

 

Al descubrir el ORIGEN KANTÁBRICO DE LA HUMANIDAD

... así como la propia Cuna del Lenguaje, de la Escritura, de todas las Ciencias y hasta de los "Dioses" de la Antigüedad, me cabe la enorme satisfacción de haberle devuelto la Memoria a la Humanidad. Todo esto, cuando se difunda a gran escala, hará el mundo muchísimo mejor: más lúcido, más pacífico, más solidario, más inteligente y más HUMANO... Éste y el de contribuir a elevar el nivel intelectual, han sido y serán siempre mis principales objetivos. ES INCOMPRENSIBLE EL DESDÉN CON EL QUE ESPAÑA CORRESPONDE A SUS ESCASOS SABIOS, A LOS POCOS QUE REALMENTE LO SON… (Periódico EL IMPARCIAL de Madrid, del 27 de Octubre de 1902) No conseguir las cosas es un hecho secundario, pero no intentarlas resulta IMPERDONABLE No hay Introito sin Sonrisa… Seguid el camino de las ROSAS amarillas… S&P (ServicioPúblico)R&G (La Razón me Guía)